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 客户点评-Power Codes Present A Minimum Normal For Brand Spanking New Construction Of Business Buildings. Your Native Code May Be A Singular One Developed By The State Or Municipality, Equivalent To California’威尼斯人视讯_威尼斯人视讯真人网址
 
 
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Power Codes Present A Minimum Normal For Brand Spanking New Construction Of Business Buildings. Your Native Code May Be A Singular One Developed By The State Or Municipality, Equivalent To California’
Power codes present a minimum normal for brand spanking new construction of business buildings. Your native code may be a singular one developed by the state or municipality, equivalent to California’s Title 24, or may be based mostly on a version of ASHRAE 90.1 (1999, 2001, 2004, 2007) or the International Power Conservation Code (IECC) (2001, 2003, 2006) requirements. While the nation is regulated by a patchwork of codes, all codes should be no less than as stringent as ASHRAE 90.1-1999, the national power commonplace. On one point, all power codes agree: Lighting controls are necessary to get rid of waste and save power. As a result of many electrical contractors often discover themselves within the position as lighting and control system designer, they should be aware of their relevant power code(s) and supply code compliance as a part of this service. IECC and 90.1 each require indoor lighting techniques in industrial buildings bigger than 5,000 sq. ft be robotically shut off when not in use, with some exceptions. How is that achieved? First, the system may very well be scheduled to shut off at a time when it`s predicted nobody will probably be there. In accordance with the California Energy Commission (CEC), robotically shutting off lights after work hours can offer 5-10 % vitality financial savings. As a result of scheduling is based on time of day, this strategy is finest suited for controlling lighting where individuals work a predictable schedule, corresponding to open offices, retail sales floors and comparable applications. It’s also properly suited for spaces that are intermittently occupied however the place we want to keep the lights on, akin to corridors, lobbies, parking heaps, sidewalks and other public areas. Whereas there are a number of choices for scheduling, it is often implemented by low-voltage management techniques, wherein local controls are hardwired to low-voltage relays housed in an clever control panel with an integral processor and time-clock for programmable scheduling. As a result of each local control requires a wiring homerun, such a management is economical for management of large public spaces. Other approaches to scheduling include building automation methods and digital ballast-based systems. Codes require that each scheduling program be no bigger than 25,000 square ft and never more than one flooring. This ensures a minimal stage of management flexibility. Every program, however, may comprise similar schedules. Second, occupancy sensors could be installed that monitor the space and turn off the lights when the areas are unoccupied. According to the new Buildings Institute, routinely shutting off lights based mostly on occupancy sensing can produce 25-forty five % power financial savings in offices and classrooms. Occupancy sensor-primarily based shutoff provides economical distributed management, or means to control a localized house, and also straight reacts when an area is unoccupied. Occupancy sensors are, due to this fact, ideally suited to enclosed spaces where there`s an unpredictable fee of occupancy, corresponding to restrooms, lunch/break rooms, assembly rooms, copy rooms and so forth. Codes require the occupancy sensor flip the lights off inside half-hour of the occupant leaving the house, making certain vitality savings. Control manufacturers recommend a 15- to 20-minute time delay as a good compromise between energy financial savings and lamp life. If lamp life is a significant concern, consider prolonged-life lamps and programmed-start ballasts. ASHRAE 90.1-2007 also encourages occupancy sensor control of furniture-mounted job lighting, stipulating that it doesn`t need to be counted as part of the put in inside lighting power if it is managed by automatic shutoff. The timer change, which turns off lights in a single-load switch leg after a time interval once the lights have been switched on, is a final type of automated shutoff. This kind of control is often applied to storage rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, provide closets and janitorial areas. Third, the control system could be set up to shut off the lights when it receives a command from another building management system such as a safety system. When the constructing is vacated and the safety system is armed, a signal is sent to the lighting management system to turn off the lights. This strategy is usually ignored, however could be efficient in retail and small office applications. IECC and 90.1 both require installed controls for common lighting in enclosed spaces, with some exceptions. Two strategies qualify: First, we may set up occupancy sensors. This is able to fulfill each the automated shutoff and area management requirements. Second, assuming a scheduling management system is being put in, we could set up override switches. Scheduling controls shut off the lights primarily based on a time event, not whether or not the house is occupied. So that people working after hours do not out of the blue find themselves at the hours of darkness, occupants ought to be given the aptitude of overriding the scheduled shutoff. IECC and 90.1 require guide controls positioned so that users can see the lights being managed however allow remote handbook control in appropriate applications. Guide controls could be switches or dimmer-switches. ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and -2007 have one other requirement: If the space is a classroom (with broad exceptions, https://visual.ly/users/stuartosman265/portfolio together with retailers, labs and preschool through grade 12 classrooms), conference/assembly room or employee lunch/break room, it will need to have occupancy sensor control if a multiscene control, akin to a dimmer, just isn`t used. In addition, IECC and 90.1 have particular necessities for visitor rooms and suites in accommodations and similar buildings. If we give occupants working through the scheduled shutoff time override functionality, we don’t need them turning the lights on in a large space or entire ground in the event that they solely want light in a small space, as this may waste vitality. In consequence, energy codes limit the utmost management zones for space controls. Based on the IECC, the controlled space can`t be larger than 5,000 sq. toes (20,000 square feet for malls, arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail areas and industrial spaces or arenas the place captive-key override is used). ASHRAE 90.1 limits the coverage space at 2,500 sq. feet if the enclosed space is lower than 10,000 sq. feet and 10,000 sq. toes if the enclosed area is higher than 10,000 sq. toes. Additionally, if we enable occupants to override the scheduled shutoff, we eventually need the lights to robotically shut off after they’ve gone. Vitality codes therefore restrict the amount of time the override is in effect. IECC limits it to two hours, while 90.1 limits it to four. This can be accomplished with an intelligent management panel that conducts sweeps or makes use of conditional logic to show off the lights or digital switches that have timed shutoff performance included into the switch. Digital switches also enable networking, which provides a simple approach to manage a load from a number of switch places, together with native and distant, and some supply dimming capability. Throughout the subsequent shutoff, if there remains to be an occupant in the world, these methods can override the shutoff once more and so forth until the occupant leaves. Though not required by code, local occupants ought to be warned that the lights are about to shut off, if potential. For instance, if the lights are about to be shut off, and as long because the lights usually are not high-intensity discharge, the panel can flick all or a portion of the lights off and on or trigger an audible warning. IECC requires that occupants be given the ability to cut back lighting load in a reasonable uniform sample by not less than 50 p.c in each indoor enclosed house, with some exceptions. ASHRAE 90.1 does not have such a requirement. Basically, this means bilevel switching, which the Nationwide Electrical Manufacturers Affiliation says can generate 10-15 percent vitality financial savings. Three major choices are available: First, we might circuit the lighting in order that alternate rows, fixtures or lamps might be switched to realize 50 p.c light output and power enter discount. Second, we could change three-lamp fixtures so that the inboard lamp is electrically separated from the two outboard lamps, enabling 33 % and sixty six percent gentle output and energy input reductions. If the lighting circuits are set up for bilevel switching, consider also setting up automatic scheduled shutoff of chosen circuits to shed load during peak demand durations and/or in response to a utility request-as long as the switching impact will not irritate occupants-a technique that can produce 5-15 p.c energy savings, in line with the California Energy Fee. Third, we may install dimming. One exception to this IECC provision is occupancy sensors. If occupancy sensors are used, the enclosed area does not require bilevel switching. ASHRAE 90.1 requires display/accent lighting be managed independently of normal lighting. This can be achieved with an clever control panel with programmable switches. By separately controlling display/accent lighting from basic lighting in a retailer, for instance, show lighting will be scheduled only during buying hours, whereas the final lighting can function throughout the store’s full working hours. DILOUIE, a lighting trade journalist, analyst and advertising and marketing guide, is principal of ZING Communications.
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